The documentation of Lii Hawu is a work-in-progress being carried out under the Language and Culture Unit (UBB-GMIT), Kupang. The current preliminary version has around 1,650 headwords and includes homonyms, subentries, multiple senses, lexical relations, and example sentences. The lexicon was compiled in Toolbox following the MDF conventions (Coward and Grimes 1995, 2000), and ported over to Lexique Pro. As a work-in-progress, some of the entries are more reliable than others.
Copyright ©2008 UBB-GMIT, Kupang. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Compiler: Charles E. Grimes, Ph.D. (Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University; and SIL International).
Contributors: My Hawu data are primarily from Bernadus Lado (Seba dialect, deceased May 2007), Rev. Simon Tari (Dimu dialect, deceased March 2007), and Rev. Thomas Ly (Dimu dialect). I have worked with approximately 15 other speakers, male and female, young and old, from the Seba, Dimu, and Raijua dialects. My exposure to the Liae and Mehara dialects has been limited to date. Menia is subsumed within the Seba dialect. My contact with Hawu has been limited to a few weeks.
The islands of Sabu and Raijua are located in
the Sabu sea between the large islands of Timor and
The Hawu language
and its dialects have no /s/. Versions of the language name written with /s/
trace back to the Portuguese era, and commonly occur through the Dutch era.
They continue to be preserved in the Indonesian era, apparently preserving
names on maps from the Dutch without further investigation. There is an /s/ à
/h/ correspondence in loans. The sound written /w/ in Hawu ranges across
dialects and various speakers from a light labiodental fricative (upper teeth
to inner lower lip), to a light bilabial fricative, to a semivowel. The light
labiodental fricative seems most prevalent, but the older generation insists it
be written as a /w/, with Dutch as their reference point, whereas many of the
younger generation prefer the symbol /v/ with reference to Indonesian and
English writing conventions. The name of the island continues to be written as Sabu within the political system under
which it currently functions. Outsiders in the region do not fricativize the
intervocalic consonant and pronounce it as [sabu].
Hawu is most fully described in
Last updated 9 April 2008.
Coward, David F. and Charles E. Grimes. 1995, 2000. Making dictionaries: a guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw: Summer Institute of Linguistics. www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/mdf.html
Donselaar, W.M. 1872. Aanteekeningen over het eiland Savoe. Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsch Zendeling Genootschap 16:281-332.
Fox, James J. 1972. The Savunese. In Frank Lebar, ed. Ethnic groups of insular Southeast Asia,
———. 1977. Harvest
of the palm: ecological change in eastern
Charles E. (forthcoming). Hawu and Dhao in eastern
Grimes, Charles E., Bernadus Lado, Thomas Ly, and Simon Tari, compilers. 2003, and in process. Kamus Pengantar Lii Hawu (Bahasa Sabu). Kupang: Artha Wacana Press.
Grimes, Charles E., Bernadus Lado, Thomas Ly, and Simon Tari, translators. 2006. Lii Hag'a D'ara j'ara lua Yesus: pedutu nga do hure do b'uke ri Ma'u. Kupang: UBB-GMIT. [Gospel of Mark in Hawu]
Grimes, Charles E., Tom Therik,
Jonker, J.C.G. 1919. Sawoeneesch. In D.G. Stibbe, ed. Encyclopaedie van Nederlandsch-Indië. ‘s-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff. Vol. 3:712-713.
Kern, H. 1892. Sawuneesche Bijdragen: Volzinnen, samensprakken en woordenlijst, met eene grammatische inleiding. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indië. ‘s-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff. 41:157-196, 513-553.
Radja Haba, M.C. 1958. Havunese Phonemes. M.A. thesis,
Riedel, J.G.F. 1889. Bijdrage tot de Kennis van het Sawusch Dialect. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indië. ‘s-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff. 38:10-12
Walker, Alan T. 1982. A
Grammar of Sawu. NUSA Linguistic Studies in Indonesian and Languages of
Wijngaarden, J.K. 1896. Sawuneesche Woordenlijst. Uitgegeven door het Koninklijk Instituut
YPPII. 1985. Lai Lua
J’agga Rasul-Rasul. Dept. Misi, Yayasan Persekutuan Pekabaran Injil: Batu,